Bio-Energy: One of the fastest growing sectors in the renewable energy sector is use of Biomass for power generation or cogeneration (CHP), Biomass gasification, Biogas, Bio-methanation and Biomass to Liquids/Bio-oils (BTL) are some of the emerging technologies. Pyrolysis of biomass to generate Bio-oils and Fischer Tropsch reaction to produce Hydrocarbons have been in the limelight and show immense promise..
Biofuels: The following areas that need to be focused are: High yields of quality feedstock and its production at low costs & to ensure its adequate availability are some of the most important issues for competitive production of Biofuels - biodiesel, bio-ethanol etc. Dealing with these issues is of key importance. There is an increasing global emphasis to develop technologies to enhance yields, efficiencies and reduce cost of production so as to make Biofuels competitive with fossil fuel. New technologies such as pyroalysis of biomass to generate Bio-oils, use of heterogeneous catalyst in Bio-diesel production and single step production of Di-methyl-ether have started occupying centre stage. There is a need for R&D in the area of Applications & Utilization of Biofuels so as to make them compatible with the existing engines, other equipment and machinery for application in various sector including heating & power generation, industry, agriculture, transport, etc.
Other areas are Policy and Regulatory Framework, Research & Development and CDM opportunities
Solar Energy: India receives solar energy equivalent to 5,000 trillion KWH/year (20MW/sq.km per annum). Presently, solar energy is being utilized through two different routes – solar thermal and solar photovoltaic route.
Solar Thermal: Solar energy can be converted into thermal energy with the help of solar collectors and receivers. The solar thermal devices are being utilized for water heating, space heating, cooking, drying, water desalination, industrial process heat, refrigeration systems etc.
Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Technology: Enables conversion of solar radiation into electricity through photovoltaic systems. Large number of solar lanterns, solar lighting, solar water pumps are operating in the country. India has 83 MW installed photovoltaic system and 2,740 kW installed grid-interactive solar photovoltaic power projects as on March 31, 2006
Although there has been substantial technical and economic advancement in this sector but the use of solar energy is still in its infant stage as far as its market is concerned. This is mainly due to high cost of capital and relative low efficiency of SPV system.
Wind Energy: Power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies. The estimated on-shore power generation potential in India through wind is estimated to be about 45,000 MW. The installed capacity is about 5300 MW as on 31st March 2006.Wind energy technologies have developed substantially in the past two decades as wind turbine size & efficiency has increased substantially.
Other / New Technologies
Hydrogen and Fuel cell technology are emerging area that holds key to replacement of hydrocarbons in the transport and related sectors. Although the commercial viability is yet to be fully established, but in years to come this source may play a major role in the economy because of its high efficiency.
Coal Bed Methane (CBM) & Coal Gasification has an enormous potential globally. New initiatives have been undertaken to tap the huge CBM reserves of India. The huge potential of Gas Hydrates in the bed of our seas and ocean is another area that has not been adequately explored by India.
Energy Efficiency & Conservation has lot of potential for solving energy demands.Climate Change is major issue for Global warming which can be solved by R&D efforts.